This issue of KIU Journal of Social Sciences focuses on Entreprenurship / Business Studies, International Economic Relations, Human Resource Management, Literary Studies, Educational Management, Gender Studies as well as Education and Rural Development.
The first section of this edition addresses various issues in Entreprenurship and Business Studies such as cooperative loan, small scale businesses, fiscal deficit, domestic credit and strategic planning among others. It is through Entreprenurship and Business Studies that investigations are made into how commercial potentials of every invention can be explored and how to organize the capital, talent, and other resources that turn an invention into a commercially viable innovation. Papers in this section focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of start-up businesses have to close due to "lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis, lack of market demand, or a combination of all of these. It was revealed in one of the papers in this section that that the commercial banks loan to the industrial sector and the interest rate have negative relationship with industrial output and are significant to industrial output while the exchange rate has a positive relationship with industrial output and it is also significant to industrial output. The researchers therefore recommended among others there is need to provide adequate financing , stabilized exchange rate, reduced interest rate and provides effective monitoring of the loan disbursed by commercial banks.
Section two explores explores International Economic Relations as an instrument of promoting successful trade policies between nations. As long as there are sovereign states, analysis of international economy shall differ from the rest of economics science. Through International Economic Relations, basic theories of international trade, institutionalization of trade and financial relations through international forums, problems of capital movement and transnational corporations (TNC), regional economic integrations, international monetary system, international financial institutions, debt crisis, as well as payment balance as an account giving a survey of foreign economic transactions of a country are well known. Therefore, the role of International Economic Relations in offering a general review of contemporary economic problems, both on the level of real flows (trade, direct foreign investment) and from the financial aspect, enabling student for easier understanding of the phenomenon of world economy, international division of labor and international economic flows becomes priceless. Papers, in this second part of the Journal, addresses issues in International Economic Relations such as Globalization, factors determing foreign policies, Linguistic Pan-Africanism, International Trade, Economic Growth, Estimated Generalized Least Square and so on. One of the papers argues that money supply is negative significant under both pooled regression and Estimated Generalized Least Square Regression, but positively and negative but statistically not significant under fixed effect and random effect respectively.and therefore recommends that Sub-Sahara African countries should pursue export promotion and import substitution with the sincerity of purpose. The monetary policies that will manipulate money supply to level of capable economy growth and avoid inflationary pressure should be adopted.
Section Three deals with Human Resource Management which has a strategic role in managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Using Nigeria Immigration Officers as case studies, one of the papers in this section argues that there is no significant interaction effect of job decision latitude and organizational support on job demand and mental strain. However, job demands have additive effects on mental strain, whereas high job control can ameliorate the negative effects of high job demands. It is therefore, recommended therefore that the management of paramilitary service in Nigeria should give more attention to organizational support in order to minimize mental strain among the immigration officers and similar bodies.
Section Four focuses attention on Literary and Gender Studies. One of the papers in this section exemplified the roles of women in the metamorphic development of Yoruba drama, especially the contemporary film era, to drive home the point that with her ‘sacred’ mien and composition, the female gender can purposefully write, produce, act and direct films that can aid Nigeria in solving the present socio-political challenges that are threatening her very existence. It therefore suggests that government and non-profit organizations in Nigeria should encourage female film producers by commissioning film projects to them and assisting them financially with self-productions.
Sections Five and Six which centre on Educational Management as well as the role of Education in Rural Development feature papers meant to that can enhance planning, organizing, directing and controlling the activities of an institution by utilizing human and material resources so utilizing human and material resources so as to effectively and efficiently accomplish functions of teaching and extension work and research.
All the articles in this edition of KIU Journal of Social Sciences, in sum, are interesting and well researched. Kudos to the contributors and all members of the editorial board for a job well done.