Open Grazing, Food Insecurity and Sustainable Human Development in Nigeria: A Horn of Dilemma
Nigeria is blessed with numerous agro-ecological resources that should make it a major exporter of food items in the world. Regrettably, it has become a major food importer as a result of food insecurity. The critical state of food production in the country is worsened by the phenomena of open grazing, climate change, global warming and the Covid-19 global pandemic. These developments have deleterious effects on agricultural activities in general, food production and sustainable human development in particular. While there are policies and agencies in the state to combat these developments, it appears they have proved ineffective in the face of increasing inconsistency in government policies, open grazing, climate change and global warming. The article within the framework of modernisation theory examines the issues of open grazing, food insecurity and sustainable human development in Nigeria. This is because any country that cannot feed its population cannot boost of human development. This study was carried out using the qualitative desktop method in deriving data for addressing the issues under analysis. 31 literature sources were consulted and analysed in order to explore the nexus between open grazing, food insecurity and sustainable human development in Nigeria. This article adopts a qualitative approach and is descriptive in nature, with the researcher setting out to illustrate the association that exists between the dependent and independent variables. Authoritative scholarly sources were reviewed, during a desktop study. The purpose was to identify the relevant publications and apply them in the research. The article argues that unless concrete efforts are made to mitigate the effects of open grazing and Covid-19, ensure increased and improved food production, the country may experience worst cases of Fulani herdsmen-farmer clashes, food crisis and human underdevelopment. The article concludes that government at all level should rise up to their responsibilities by providing enabling environment for herdsmen and farmer to engage in the production of sufficient food for sustainable human development in the country.
Keywords: Conflict, environment, peace, sustainability, survive