An Assessment of Dualism in Systematic and Regional Geography
Ever since the ancient Egyptian period up till the early Greeks the (pre-socratics) ideologist, scholars like anaximander (610-c. 647 b.c.e) and latter, Heracleitus (C.540-c.480 b.c.e), Empedocles (C.490-C.430 b.c.e), and Anaxagoras (C.500-C 428 b.c.e) all held the doctorine of opposed natural substances, the same was the doctrine of pythagoranism, believed to have been founded by Pythagoras of Samos (C.580-C 500 b.c.e) whose focus was also on opposing dyads such as one/two, male/female, and so forth. Plato’s (C.428-348 or 347 b.c.e), view point also supported the earlier ideological doctrine of dualism in his metaphysics when he divided the world into two realms; the unchanging intelligible world of “forms” and the perceptual world of “change” (things). A review of previous studies points to methodological approach and application, this greatly help towards the shifting in geographical thinking and knowledge of inquiry from that of narrow descriptive perception to quantification and critical analysis of geographical spacial relationship in space. The fact remains that dualism in geography showcase value among geographers, This played various roles in the defining and studying of geography. The paper noted that there is a great shift in geographical thinking and knowledge of inquiry, as geography have evolved from descriptive to application of quantitative techniques after the controversies of determinism, possibilism and probabilism. It is worth nothing that the concept of dualism is today acting as property that governs the agenda and conduct of research through the utilization of theory and empirical application towards any geographical issue on the earth surface; this no doubt serves as a cure to the various natural complexities and environmental challenges facing man and his society. For this reason the study of geography should cover both natural and man-made features, their distribution patterns and interactions of man with the spatial environment as he seeks to increase his returns from the terrestrial space and resources (Ambrose, 1972: 1).